“Time will be the fire we burn in.” And though we may be unable to quench its unrelenting flame, scientists have tried to divert its path by isolating small enclosures where time slows into a crawl. Within these chambers the frenetic Brownian dance turns into a chaperoned waltz, as temperatures approach absolute zero. The internal environment of Lng vehicle cylinder is really a world apart, a reminder of your ultimate heat-death that must befall our universe inside the eons in the future.
For those who aim to discover truths in regards to the workings in the cell, holding back the floodgates of energy is a problem of significant proportions. Scientists tend to be enthusiastic about very specific cell properties that happen at critical junctions inside the life of a cell. Holding these processes under control while their properties could be exploited is akin to the issue of catching one’s shadow.
Cryogenic freezing of cells has been utilized as one means to fix the situation in the slow burn. By reduction of the temperatures of samples to the glass transition phase of -133°C, the temperature from which all metabolic activity involves a halt, scientists are able to seclude moments in time, returning over and over to research that instant in the past.
Unsurprisingly, cryogenics is becoming a significant industry which enables customized products for almost every conceivable purpose. From small tabletop apparatus to industrial-scale liquifiers, the marketplace in cryogenics provides mechanical freezers, packing containers, and dewars in every size, shape, and configuration imaginable. With such numerous products to select from expertise in which of them are handiest may elude the standard consumer. As a way to provide a summary of the main producers of cryogenic laboratory supplies several manufacturers is going to be profiled in the following paragraphs.
Ultra-low lab freezers are some of those stuff that a lot of people never think of until they quit working. Designed to run for a long time without interruption in service, lab freezers are the quiet sentinels from the laboratory, keeping a vigilant watch within the researcher’s most prized possessions. Most scientists avoid the thought of what might happen if their freezer failed, or they attempt to erase the memory of the day whenever it did. A career’s worth of samples can be lost in one afternoon– many years of careful collecting and cataloging reduced to mere puddles on the floor. Although such a scenario looms ominously from the periphery of each and every researcher’s consciousness, not many are prepared for a day when it actually occurs. Manufacturers of ultra-low lab freezers have taken great pains to make certain that power failures and refrigerant leaks will never compromise one’s samples. They build machines that usually are meant to be forgotten.
MMR Technologies will be the only company that utilizes the Kleemenko cooling cycle in the refrigerators. Although the natural gas industry has utilized this method for a long time, MMR Technologies was the initial company to patent the technology and adapt it for tiny, lightweight, and portable freezing systems.
The way the Kleemenko cycle works is the fact that an assortment of compressed gas and liquid is passed down a countercurrent exchanger which is permitted to expand via a capillary or throttling valve. Cooling occurs upon expansion, as well as the cool gas passes backup the heat exchanger, precooling the incoming high-pressure gas. Several liquid-vapor separators could be incorporated inside the cycle in order that the increase of the liquid enables you to precool the vapor (W.A. Little., Presented at ICEC17, Bournemouth, U.K.,July 14-17 1998)
The BIO 120 is a zero-maintenance, low-power-consumption Kleemenko refrigerator that is made for storing frozen tissue, cell cultures, organs, and body parts. The device allows the scientist to warm and cool samples uniformly without shocking them, and furthermore, as they have an inside power supply it can be used for that transportation of samples from storage facility to check out laboratory. Robert Paugh, product manager for MMR Technologies, was insistent on the necessity for controlled temperature ramping.
“As a user you want to know the minimum temperature and just how it gets there,” said Paugh. MMR Technologies’ enhanced control systems and printed thermal record of cooling helps to ensure that uniform temperatures are already maintained throughout the cooling process.
Kelvinator Scientific, and that is a subsidiary of Frigidaire, provides freezer units for laboratories and pharmacies that are equipped for biological samples at temperatures right down to -86°C. At temperatures this low animal and plant viruses, bacteria, spores, and bacteriophages could be preserved for prolonged periods. Locking lids are given in order to protect samples from accidental exposure to ambient temperatures. Adjustable shelving, pullout drawers, and drawer partition inserts are of help for separating different experiments.
NuAire, Inc. credits most of its ultralow freezing capabilities to its heavy-gauge galvanized steel cabinets. The high temperature-conducting quality on this material reduces stress on compressors allowing the units to operate longer and colder than would otherwise be possible. Maintaining temperatures at -152°C the NuAire ultralow freezer is capable of holding samples below the crystallization point.
In keeping with the Clean Air Act of 1990 for systems using HCFC/HFC refrigerants, NuAire also relies on a special mixture of azeotropic gases that are non-flammable and permit on-site recycling. Moreover, a built in timer cycles the reduced stage compressor every 24 hours, turning it away to ensure the capillary tubing will likely be cleared of ice formation.
So-Low Environmental Equipment Co. features a long tradition of making ultralow freezers for laboratory applications. Actually, with 40 years of experience under its belt, So-Low is amongst the oldest manufacturers of ultralow temperature freezers in the market. Once the Montreal Protocol started the phase out from CFC refrigerants in 1987, So-Low was the first to use Dupont Suva 95, the brand new CFC-free refrigerant that runs cooler and with less pressure than CFCs. Together with its investigation of eco-friendly refrigerants, So-Low also has developed an innovative compressor that is certainly designed only for its ultralow freezers.
Forma Scientific offers both mechanical and liquid nitrogen storage systems for preserving samples at ultralow temperatures. The mechanical freezers preserve specimens down to -86°C, while Forma’s liquid nitrogen freezers store samples at -133°C. Unlike its competitors’ liquid nitrogen freezers, however, Forma provides square cross-section units instead of the normal cylindrical containers. Each one of these cabinets is constructed of cold-rolled steel. Forma’s counterbalanced lids provide easy access, an optional thermal data printer continuously documents all operational functions, as well as a storage system adjusts to accommodate an array of tube sizes. Forma offers a patented double door unit that separates long-term from everyday storage.
Revco is probably the largest manufacturers of laboratory freezers with over 50 years of expertise in the marketplace. Revco’s Elite, Value, and Ultima mechanical freezers sustain temperatures from -10°C to as low as -120°C without CFC refrigerants and are available in chest, upright, and tabletop models. Its sophisticated Ultima freezers offer automatic electronic systems that constantly adjust conditions for the external and internal environment, correcting for subtle fluctuations in ambient temperature, excessive loading with warm samples, and dirty filters. In addition, it includes a scrubbing cycle that removes vaporized lubricating oil in the evaporating coils.
Sanyo has become manufacturing laboratory and medical freezers in excess of 2 decades, starting with its creation of the initial -40°C chest freezer in 1974. Sanyo duplicated this achievement with the growth of the first -152°C ultralow temperature freezer in 1991 and further demonstrated its position by becoming the 1st manufacturer to offer a complete array of CFC-free medical freezers. Today, Sanyo offers among the largest selections of ultralow temperature lab freezers available today. Sanyo’s upright and chest freezers are equipped for use within preserving cells, bacteria, spores, pollen, sperm, protozoa, and blood components for academic and industrial research.
The term dewar, originally put on double walled glass vacuum flasks, is now used on a wide array of insulated vessels designed for repair of samples in liquid nitrogen. Depending on their size, dewars usually rest on the ground or sit down on tabletops where samples can easily be accessed. Due to the quality of insulation materials, some dewars have maintained critical temperatures so long as one year without getting regenerated with liquid nitrogen. The common thermal wall is made up of an aluminum or steel sandwich filled up with polyurethane. The dimensions and configuration of dewars vary to this kind of extent that lots of companies build custom dewars to order. A few of these companies as well as their merchandise is reviewed from the following section.
From Alaskan salmon eggs to embryos from Idaho’s chicken farms, MVE makes laboratory freezers for a multitude of applications. Obviously, animal breeders are just a small amount of its customers. Blood and cell storage along with organ shipment are an equally large element of MVE’s business with medical and pharmaceutical applications representing the quickest-growing area of the industry for the company’s products.
MVE was the initial company to develop biological freezers able to maintaining a -190°C environment for a full year without refilling with nitrogen. Since this time MVE has released the total line of XLC series liquid and vapor-phase freezers. The XLC liquid nitrogen freezers are capable of handling approximately 36,000 vials at temperatures as low as -195.8°C. The vapor-phase freezers are suitable for cells that could be stored at -125°C but will become damaged or discolored at critical temperatures achieved by liquid nitrogen freezers. The vapor-phase freezers may also be helpful for storing hazardous materials that may cross-communicate in the liquid medium, including contaminated-blood bags that happen to be prone to break open.
Quantum Technology is actually a worldwide manufacturer and supplier of laboratory freezers with offices in the United States and Germany. Its product line includes everything from compressors and temperature sensors to gas wells and vacuum shrouds.
As outlined by Sean Wolf, product manager for Quantum Technology, one way his company has was able to remain competitive is actually by offering on-site service and warranty repair. Another major selling reason for Quantum’s refrigeration systems is they can be customized.
One of Quantum Technology’s most popular products can be a helium recovery system. Although liquid helium is only $4 or $5 per liter, in many countries beyond North America and Europe, the cost of purchasing helium is a concern of concern. That is among the factors why Quantum Technology makes an effective two-stage and three-stage closed-cycle refrigerator in which the helium is retained inside the system. The helium with this refrigerator is reliquified to be used over and over.
Lab-Line Instruments, designer and manufacturer of dewars for scientific research and recently acquired subsidiary of Barnstead Thermolyne, delivers a Thermo-Flask line of products that include wide-mouth flasks, insulated Thermo-Cups, stainless steel Thermo-Flasks, and enameled steel Thermo-Flasks. Twenty-six different types are available with capacities from 200 cc to 10 liters, and each of these models is offered by using a 24-month warranty. Other special highlights of the Thermo-Flask brand of products include vented lids to prevent pressure build-up, fold-down handles, and borosilicate inner vessels evacuated to supply coolant retention for samples kept in liquid nitrogen or solid CO2.
Barnstead Thermolyne manufactures the Bio-Cane and Locator Plus cryogenic storage systems, which are distributed by a variety of companies throughout america. The Bio-Cane systems are available in five sizes and give features such as super vacuum insulation, ampule cans, a polycarbonate lid, and color-coded canisters for inventory identification. The Locator Plus storage systems can be found in four sizes and also have capacities as much as 6,000 vials. As well as some of the standard features found in the Bio-Cane, the Locator provides hanging racks by using a gridded box design, audible and visual alarms that warn of low-level conditions, plus an ultrasonic liquid level monitor that eliminates contact with liquid nitrogen and consequently reduces evaporation.
Pope Scientific makes a number of traditional dewar flasks in “cylindrical,” “low form shallow,” and “spherical” styles. All Pope dewars are made from borosilicate glass included in a protective mesh, and each wide-mouth model features a vented polyethylene stopper to lower evaporation. Wide-mouth dewars can even be jacketed in aluminum casing for additional safety.
Pope Scientific’s narrow-mouth or “constricted-neck” dewars are best for temporary storage or transfer applications with holding times greater than 2 weeks. Most of these units come built with a minimal-evaporation stopper, a totally shielded evacuation tip, a weighted base, and protective mesh. Selections for these instruments include fiberglass caddies for carrying or decanting.
Taylor-Wharton International definitely makes the K Series, XT (Extended Time), HC (High Capacity), and RS (Rack System) dewars which allow the researcher to store vast amounts of semen, embryos, and biological samples at liquid-nitrogen temperatures. All these units is complemented by its own inventory control system, which is designed to maximize the number of vials that could be safely arranged in a canister-type storage device. By either immersing samples in liquid nitrogen or suspending them in nitrogen vapor, vials could be maintained at temperatures of -196° C.
Cryogenic Tubes are some of the most frequently used and least considered implements in the researcher’s tool box. Bags of tubes are stuffed into corners and forgotten until they mysteriously run out 1 day. Then it is time to go shopping. Making decisions about buying cryogenic tubes is often guided by three primary issues, the very first which concerns the issue of whether or not they are externally or internally threaded. Advocates of externally threaded vials propose that material is trapped within the threads of internally threaded vials, while proponents of the internally threaded sort debate that externally threaded vials are definitely more easily contaminated by accidental contact. Although research has been conducted in order to confirm or refute these claims, these have not been conclusive, as well as the debate continues on.
One more consideration that comes into consideration when buying cryogenic tubes may be the material that these are constructed. While plastic vials are, perhaps, stronger than glass, they take more time to warm which might negatively impact the viability of some cells. Some plastic tubes can be contaminated with releasing fluids during the molding process. However, releasing fluids can be taken off together with the proper care, and a few brands like Axygen are switching to new polished molds that do not require the use of releasing fluids. Glass, on the flip side, warms rapidly but is also susceptible to fracture on account of microchannels which might form in the glass, causing leakage of sample contents, as well as violent explosions. Plastic vials can also be prone to nitrogen penetration but the potential of explosion is just not as great.
Gasketing has been an issue of some contention in this industry. Many cryovials include a washer that keeps the interior pressure in the vial from expelling the tube’s contents when it is warmed to ambient conditions. The rapid expansion of gas within the tube is sufficient force cells and fluid throughout the lids of numerous non-gasketed cryotubes. Silicon is normally preferred since the best material for insulating caps against leakage. Although rubber can also be used, it comes with a tendency to get rid of its elasticity when dropped to freezing temperatures, a challenge that was demonstrated if the “O” rings in the space shuttle Challenger failed.
Simport Plastics, headquartered in Quebec, provides a large selection of cryotubes and microcentrifuge tubes which you can use at temperatures only -190°C. Designed for handling biological samples under freezing conditions for prolonged periods, its Cryovials™ come provided with attached leak proof caps that comprise of a dual lip as well as a silicon washer. An exclusive ridge on each cap makes handling easier, bringing about one-hand aseptic technique, and color-coded cap inserts in combination with white marking areas make each vial easily identifiable.
Evergreen Scientific manufactures the CryoSure® model of vials for storing cell cultures, blood/serum specimens, sperm, and also other biological fluids at vapor-phase liquid nitrogen temperatures (-195°C). CryoSure vials can be purchased in 1. ml, 1.5 ml, and three.5 ml sizes are available in round-bottom and freestanding configurations.
Evergreen also has a wide selection of microcentrifuge tubes that range in capacities from 250 µ l to 2. ml. Some examples are polypropylene tubes, that may be used in combination with solvents, alcohols, chlorinated and aromatic hydrocarbons, and ketones. These tubes are sterilized using gamma radiation and are pressure tested in a vacuum chamber to be sure the reliability of its double-sealing screw caps.
Evergreen has recently developed a new microcentrifuge tube, in cooperation with Washington University Lipid Research Center, for use in lipid fractionation studies. It is a 1.5 ml polystyrene tube with the 11 mm high-density polyethylene cap. One of several outstanding attributes of this tube is it is totally transparent.
Nalgene® and Nunc™ cryogenic vials include a range of externally and internally threaded vials from 1. to 5. ml capacities that happen to be silicone gasketed and guaranteed for use in a centrifuge. The Nalgene 5000 series vials feature graduations and they are certified being sterile, noncytotoxic and nonpyrogenic, even though the System 100 vials are bound to be leakproof in the microcentrifuge around 8,000 g and throughout shipment and transport. However, the organization warns that cryotubes improperly sealed in liquid phase can lead to an explosion or biohazard release. Nalgene and Nunc have provided CryoFlex Tubing to avert this contingency.
Wheaton Science Products makes tubes and flasks for pretty much every eventuality. From serum bottles to mobile phase reservoirs, it offers developed an extensive catalog of items for handling liquid samples. Wheaton’s Cryules® can be found in both plastic and glass. The glass Cryule is made of Wheaton-33° low extractable glass that can be hermetically sealed. These are typically most suitable for the preservation of biological materials with liquid nitrogen at low temperatures. Wheaton’s plastic Cryules are autoclavable and, like all of the glass Cryules, can withstand temperatures between -196°C and 121°C. Wheaton Vacules are vials which can be constructed for lyophilization and freeze-drying. Their heavy-wall construction causes them to be exceptionally durable, and they are often flame sealed or stored with a wide array of stoppers and caps.
Corning Incorporated Science Products Division makes a series of polypropylene vials that are designed for use at temperatures to -196°C. These come designed with a number of features including color-coded caps, silicon and rubber washers for secure sealing of contents, and simple-to-read graduations for partial volumes. Self-standing and locking features are available with selected styles. Most of Corning’s vials are supplied sterile and certified as nonpyrogenic.
Axygen Scientific Inc. makes microcentrifuge and screw-cap tubes for storing samples at subfreezing temperatures that are developed with 99.9 percent pure polypropylene with no mineral fillers or chemical toxins. Foreign substances are added only at the request of your customer, and Axygen’s colorants contain no metallic ions like iron, chromium, or nickel which can be typical constituents of dyes. Each one of the company’s vials was created to snap closed in the locked position for centrifugation, and special piercing ports make your insertion of syringes easier for collecting samples. Axygen’s “O” ring closure system features a patent-pending alignment system that guarantees the microtube is aligned in the centrifuge rotor being re-spun without disturbing the pelletized sediment.
Sarstedt Inc. has a extensive catalog of microcentrifuge tubes that are appropriate for both freezing at ultralow temperatures and centrifugation which come in a selection of sizes, shapes, and colours. The consumer has the choice of choosing from various externally threaded microtubes with attached or enclosed screw caps that may be colored for identification. Most of Sarstedt’s tubes are sterile, and the polypropylene material from where they can be constructed allows them to endure subfreezing temperatures as well as temperatures and pressures within an autoclave. One of the areas that Sarstedt has paid particular focus on in developing its brand of products is the requirement for cryogenic vials that contain reaction buffers and enzymes for PCR applications.
Stockwell Scientific manufacturers CRYO-LOK® Cryogenic Vials and screw- cap microcentrifuge tubes for storage and transport at ultralow temperatures. These range in capacity from .5 ml to 3.5 ml and can be found in conical and skirted configurations. Stockwell’s microcentrifuge tubes could be subjected to a centrifugal force of 20,000 g and every one of its O-ring sealed tubes has become sterilized.
Storage inventory systems really are a critical part of any long term protocol for cryogenic preservation. Once cryogenic vials are stored at subfreezing temperatures they may undergo changes which make them challenging to keep trace. Labels could become brittle, breaking and separating from vials, and improperly stored tubes can be dropped into liquid nitrogen making retrieval difficult and costly. Probably the most popular methods for containing samples will be the canister and cane. By using this technique, some vials are enclosed in just a long aluminum shaft that may be submerged within liquid nitrogen. The canes can be manipulated for small sample volumes and protect vials from damage that may occur from bumping or agitation. For greater storage capacities, however, the drawer product is usually preferred. Although drawer systems tend to expose more samples to warming during exchange, the accessibility from the system reduces exposure time and energy to ambient temperatures leading to less evaporation in the freezer, and in addition reduces the researcher’s being exposed to possibly damaging cryogens.
Forma Scientific makes rack inventory systems for liquid-phase and vapor-phase storage. These racks are created to optimize the amount of storage space afforded by Forma’s liquid nitrogen containers. The standard inventory configuration is really a cardboard or stainless steel construction arranged into arrowhead or square designs. Vertical inventory systems let the user to arrange as much as 82 racks at maximum density.
TetraLink International focuses on making storage boxes and rack systems for cryogenic storage. Designed for the widest possible applicability, its freezer storage systems can be bought in numerous sizes, shapes, and colors to match almost any freezer. Clear lids allow contents to become viewed without opening the containers, and they may be adjusted in certain models to accommodate tubes of varying heights. Round holes provide spacing with clearance for snap-seal and safe-lock caps. TetraLink’s Racksys storage system uses sliding drawers that have storage racks for holding approximately 267 microtubes. These drawers could be installed in every upright freezer or refrigerator.
Nalgene and Nunc storage systems comprise a number of plastic or chipboard containers for microcentrifuge tubes and glass vials. These are typically keyed to stop misalignment and provide temperature resistance from -196°C to 121°C.
Nalgene® CryoBox Racks provide stainless steel retainer systems appropriate for all Nalgene and Nunc storage boxes. They have vertical and horizontal storage for boxes that maintain each box separately for simple retrieval.
National Labnet provides freezer racks and storage boxes for the increasing assortment of sample containers. As high-throughput experiments require greater reserves of reagents, LNG filling Station has responded with boxes and racks that happen to be constructed for numerous samples of both well plates and cryovials. They have also introduced boxes with telescoping lids as a way to satisfy requirements for single box containers with vials of differing sizes.
Custom Biogenic Systems is amongst the largest manufacturers of rack systems for cryogenic packing containers. In fact, many of its items are sold as standard accessories with several of the major producers of laboratory freezers. Its pie-shaped racks are made from stainless steel and include a selection of cardboard, aluminum, or stainless-steel boxes with 1/2 inch or 5/8″ cell dividers. These systems can be purchased as individual units or as complete racks for usage in vapor- phase or liquid-phase storage.
Almost certainly, the cryogenic products one buys today is definitely the same ones which will be used for years. An order made today may go on for 10 years. Essentially, researchers buying Gas Cylinder are not just buying products for themselves, they may be buying for his or her successors. The individual should consider what might 46dexkpky during the period of years if their samples become degraded or contaminated due to improper storage. A bit money that was saved at the beginning by scrimping on vials or freezers may well not seem like the best trade off when valuable samples are lost. Regardless of the safeguards built in to the majority of these devices many product managers recommend making regular maintenance on these items a priority. Appointing a permanent position that is accountable for the cryogenic safety from the laboratory’s biological collection is among the guidelines on how to assure the integrity of those samples.